April 16: Coxey Charters Canalboats

Coxey's Army on the canal--Second barge belongs to the Consolidation Coal Company - From the Ray Stannard Baker Collection at the Library of Congress.

Commonwealers Will Proceed by Water to Williamsport

From The New York Times, Monday April 17, 1894

CUMBERLAND, Md., April 16. — While the heads of the Commonweal Army have been pushing preparations for the coming exodus from Cumberland, the army has been resting and living luxuriously. The Spring sunshine has been, a tonic to the frost-bitten travelers. Many of the soldiers went into the river, where, stripped to the waist, they bathed in the ice water, to-day, with a liberal allowance of soap from the great stock contributed at Alliance…

…The estrangement of Jesse Coxey, the prodigal son, from his father, consequent on Jesse’s revolt the “Unknown” Smith on Saturday has been arbitrated, and the boy is back in the fold of the Commonweal…

…The army will go by water to Williamsport.…
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April 15: The “Unknown” Set Adrift

Coxey's Army at the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal - 1894  http://www.canaltrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/lrg-535-hm-9.jpg

He Is No Longer in Coxey's Army of Commonweal

From The New York Times, Sunday, April 16, 1894:

CUMBERLAND, MD., April 15 — The once famous “Unknown” of Coxey’s army was stripped of his veiled glory to-day and likewise of his honors as a Commonwealer. Carl Browne, the deposed leader of yesterday, has entire charge of the body tonight.

Gen. Coxey next took the stump, and spoke at length on the necessity of peace, showing determination only on the statement that the “Unknown” would have to go.


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April 14: Commonwealers Nigh Unto Riot

Carl Browne, Histories of the National Mall, http://dev.omeka.org/mallhistory/items/show/93.

Marshal Browne Bounced by Coxey's "Unknown" in Maryland

From The New York Times, Sunday, April 15, 1894:

FROSTBURG, MD., April 14 — Revolt in the ranks of Coxey’s army today leaves the Commonwealers in a state bordering on riot. Chief Marshal Carl Browne of California was deposed as Marshal, and Louis Smith, “The Unknown,” is in full charge.

[pullquote]During one of the halts, Smith ordered the men to march, and Browne called a halt. In a war of words, Browne denounced “The Unknown” as a Pinkerton detective.…
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April 9: Army Must Return to the West; Utah Courts Order the Men Back Into the Car – They Must Be Moved.

Reports from Utah, Nebraska, Nevada, California, Illinois, Colorado.

While much of the media coverage centered on Jacob Coxey’s march from Massillon, Ohio, at least forty other “Industrial Armies” of unemployed workers were organized in 1894 for the purpose of marching to Washington, D.C.  Fry’s Army organized in Los Angeles; the Northwestern Industrial Army gathered in Seattle; Kelly’s Army marched from San Francisco, with Jack London among the marchers.

From The Chicago Tribune, Tuesday, April 10, 1894.…
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April 9: Coxey Puts Up Toll

CoxeyToll-ChicagoTrib1894_0410-356px
Headline from The Chicago Tribune, Tuesday, April 10, 1894

“One dollar eighty-seven cents,” said Mrs. Clabaugh resolutely. Coxey paid the money in nickels and pennies, took a receipt, and the army marched on.

UNIONTOWN, Pa., April 9.-[Special.]– One lone woman met Coxey’s army of the commonweal in combat today and ignominiously defeated it. The woman’s name is Mrs. Annie Clabaugh and she is tollkeeper at the toll-gate two miles east of Brownesville. Mrs. Clabaugh, with no more deadly weapon than a woolen fascinator, hold up Coxey’s army on the high road and forced it to pay toll.…
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April 8: Jail Yawning for Gen. Coxey

Jail Yawning for Gen. Coxey - NYT 4/9/1894 - http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9802EFDE1630E033A2575AC0A9629C94659ED7CF
Headline from The New York Times, Monday, April 9, 1894

Note the change of tone in the news coverage of (and government response to) the Coxey movement, as compared to that at the beginning of the march: from crackpot, to harmless, to drama. And now, perceived as a threat.

Plans are being put into motion which will ultimately thwart the efforts of citizens to exercise their First Amendment right to free speech. And to provide a distraction from the purpose of the march: to make the case for good roads and for public investment in the nation’s infrastructure, which will result in reduced unemployment.…
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April 7: Coxey’s Advance Cohort Arrested

NYT - 4/8/1894  http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C01E0DE1630E033A2575BC0A9629C94659ED7CF
Headline from The New York Times, Sunday, April 8, 1894

WASHINGTON, April 7. – The advance guard of Coxey’s Army, forty-one in number, got within two miles of Washington this evening, and were taken in charge by the police and locked up.

They came in on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in freight cars, and when they reached Eckington, a suburb of the city, a squad of police took them from the cars and marched them from the cars and marched them to the Ninth Precinct Station House where they will be held until Monday for examination.…
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April 6: Afraid of His Army

Chicago Tribune 4/7/1894  http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1894/04/07/page/1/article/defends-a-dead-man
Headline from The Chicago Tribune, Saturday, April 7, 1894

Coxy Fears He Will Not Be Able to Feed it

Now over 500 strong, the Commonweal is ready to head into the mountains, where the terrain will be rugged, and supplies will be few.  The marchers appear to be able to make it through. But, is Coxey himself up to the task?

From The Chicago Tribune – April 7, 1894:

McKeesport, Pa., April 6 — [Special] Gen. Coxey is growing frightened at the monster he has created and would reduce its size and unwieldiness if he could.…
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April 4: Lock Up Coxey’s Men.

Photo from Ohio History Central - Coxey's Army

Police of Allegheny Arrest Commonwealers on Sight

With ten days in, this is not quite the welcome that the army has experienced in earlier cities. The media, previously having ridiculed the group, is now reporting from a slightly different perspective, that of sympathy. But that will change, soon enough…

From The Chicago Tribune – April 5, 1894:

Allegheny City, Pa., April 4 — [Special] Coxey’s Army is imprisoned in Allegheny. Some of its troopers lie behind the bars of the Central Station; the others are behind a twenty-five foot fence in the baseball club grounds.…
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April 2: Coxey’s Army Grows

Map of the J.S. Coxey Good Roads Commonweal

From The Chicago Tribune - April 2, 1894     

By April 2, Coxey’s Army had crossed into Pennsylvania. The Chicago Tribune reported that the group was now numbering nearly 250 men. The media was also picking up on the rivalry between marshal Carl Browne and “The Great Unknown.”

Beaver Falls, PA., Contributes To Commonweal

Provisions Pour Into the Camp and the Leaders Are Sanguine and Happy Again – Coxey Fears for Food in the Mountains and Wants No More Men Until They Are Crossed – Genuineness of the Recruits in Doubt-The “Unknown” Grows In Interest as Browne Declines.
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