While much of the media coverage centered on Jacob Coxey’s march from Massillon, Ohio, at least forty other “Industrial Armies” of unemployed workers were organized in 1894 for the purpose of marching to Washington, D.C. Fry’s Army organized in Los Angeles; the Northwestern Industrial Army gathered in Seattle; Kelly’s Army marched from San Francisco, with Jack London among the marchers.
From The Chicago Tribune, Tuesday, April 10, 1894.
OGDEN, Utah, April 9.-This evening Judges Miner and Merritt signed a mandatory restraining order on the Southern Pacific railroad restraining them from keeping or allowing the industrial army brought by said company “unlawfully into said territory” and ordering them all back into the twenty seven box cars, or from keeping any portion of the army in the cars in this territory any longer than is absolutely necessary to carry them away. This means that the Southern Pacific must at once carry the army back from whence it came. It is said that United States Marshal Burnham will enforce the order compelling the army to return to the boxcars at once. The result of the injunction has caused much excitement, as it is known there will be great danger of trouble in enforcing it. The industrials have repeatedly asserted that they will not go back, and developments of an exciting nature may be looked for. Judge Marchall, attorney for the Southern Pacific, gave notice of appeal to the Supreme Court from the order. He asked for a stay of executing until the appeal could be heard. ‘The request was denied by the court. At.11 o clock Marshal Burnham is swearing in sixty deputies. He had no difficulty in getting aIl the men he wanted. Notice is to be served on Supt. Knapp of the Southern Pacific within an hour.
OMAHA, Neb., April 9.– [Special.]-From reports received at Union Pacific headquarters today the “industrial” army at Ogden is quiet. It is supposed the people of Ogden will hire a special freight train, supply the army with food, and start it East, this apparently being the only way to get the men out of town. An effort will be made to have the train run through Omaha and across the bridge to Council Bluffs and let the people of that town hustle up some means to care for the men. Council Bluffs is the terminus of the Union Pacific, and by doing this Omaha would escape the army if it was in a hurry to get East. The Omaha-Chicago roads will only transport the army at regular party rates.
RENO, Nev., April 9.-Capt. Kelly of the Industrial army, en route to Ogden, orders acceptance of all recruits at Reno and get them to Ogden as soon as possible. He said that he would hold the main division there or at Salt Lake until their arrival.
SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., April 9.-The second division of the American industrial army was organized here yesterday. It expects to leave San Francisco Thursday for Washington with 500 men and to recruit 250 at Oakland.
CARLYLE, Ill., April 9.-[Special.]-The recruits for Coxey, numbering 400, under Gen. Frye, left St. Jacobs today for Highland, six miles east, which was reached this evening. The incessant rain, which has been pouring down all, dampened their ardor and many have deserted.
PUEBLO, Colo., April 9.-Bert Hamilton, Captain of the Colorado division of Coxey’s army, and forty followers were arrested in the railroad yards here and spent the night in jail. They were released today on condition that they leave town immediately.
Primrose Detachment Turned Loose
Washington, D.C. April 9 — Capt. Jack Primrose and his forty associates, comprising the first band of the army of the unemployed to reach Washington, were discharged from Police custody today by Judge Kimball of the police court. The Judge ruled that they should be given a brief time in which to get work, and that if they failed and became beggars and loafers they could then be arranged as vagrants.